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Table of Contents

Nov 2013
Supplement, Putting the Clamp on Hemorrhage
  • Every Red Blood Cell Counts

    Uncontrolled bleeding is one of the leading causes of death in civilian and military environments, second only to central nervous system injury. Every red blood cell counts; effective hemorrhage control at the earliest moment is critical to patient survival. Early control of hemorrhage reduces the negative downstream consequences associated with substantial blood loss, including shock, late mortality and multiple organ failure.

  • Stop the Bleeding

    From the beginning of the evolution of humans, the ability to stop bleeding has been paramount to our survival. Humans have managed to survive severe trauma for thousands of years. Written records of medical interventions date back to the ancient Greeks and Romans.

  • Point-of-Care Hemorrhage Control

    It was a cold January morning in 1979 at Colgate University when I was handed my copy of the American Red Cross Advanced First Aid Manual as part of my National Ski Patrol training. Although I had never seen severe bleeding in my life, my instructor assured me that four simple steps would stop almost any bleeding.

  • From Battlefields to City Streets

    The decade of war in Iraq and Afghanistan has been unique from prior American conflicts because of a new partnership between military medicine and civilian trauma experts, combined with an innovative data collection system, the Joint Theater Trauma Registry (JTTR), which has tracked soldiers’ injuries throughout the war. This has allowed researchers to monitor the usefulness and safety of trauma treatments used by the military.

  • A New Tool in the Box

    In classrooms all across the nation, students are taught that hypoxia is inadequate oxygen supply for the body. Although that’s true, we sometimes fail to explain to students the multiple types of hypoxia that our patients could be encountering. In fact, in most commonly utilized textbooks for EMT and paramedic programs, the four types of hypoxia are not addressed.

    Understanding the etiology of the four types of hypoxia—hypoxic, hypemic, stagnant and histotoxic—is crucial in providing care that will result in the most desirable outcome for the patient.

  • How the iTClamp Works

    Essentially all mechanical hemorrhage-control techniques work by applying pressure, either directly or indirectly to the bleeding vessels (or proximal to the bleeding vessels in the case of tourniquets). The iTClamp also relies on pressure to control hemorrhage, but does so in a novel manner. It essentially converts an open bleeding wound into a closed wound, which then allows a stable clot to form in the contained space, ultimately tamponading the bleeding vessel.

  • Training & Speed Are Crucial

    Exsanguination accounted for more than half of the preventable deaths in Vietnam; almost 50% of combat fatalities before evacuation from Iraq were attributed to uncontrolled hemorrhage.1,2 Uncontrolled hemorrhage also results in the death of a large number of civilian trauma fatalities each year.

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